2010 March

2010  March

Coma is a Greek word meaning ‘state of sleep’. This doesn’t mean the state of unconsciousness. It is a clinical condition in which Brain hibernates permanently or may recover over a period of time.  When a person is endured with cruel brain trauma, infection, stroke or hyperglycemia, brain tissues gets damaged.  These results in swelling of brain that presses and blocks the blood vessels those which supplies the brain .  There are certain mechanisms in human body, which aids in healing injuries.  This includes Inflammation, granular tissue formation, fibrosis etc.  These mechanisms are specific for different types of cell damages.  However, consequently it leads to poor blood flow and oxygen supply (hypoxia) to the injured organ or tissue cheap cigarettes online.  Eventually, development of new cells takes place.  A patient in comatose condition is also experiencing the same situation in Brain tissues.  So, it is evident that making a person comatose helps in wound healing.  This principle is being employed by some of the doctors, in patients who suffer from severe brain cell damage or diseases which affects brain.  Coma is medically-induced to such patients by ingestion of drugs that makes brain to lie dormant. A properly induced coma will assist in the series of recovery from brain damages buy discount cigarettes.

The discovery of mirror neurons before a decade describes that the character of each individual is an imitation of several other persons.  Mirror Neurons play a major explanatory role in the understanding of a number of human features, from imitation to empathy, mind reading and language learning.  This was discovered by the neuroscientist, Dr. Rizzolatti.  They were experimenting with a monkey, wired from parts of the brain that was responsible for planning and carrying out movements.  Whenever the monkey made some movements or grasped some objects, the cells in that area of the brain fired and gave an alarming sound.  This sound was also registered when the monkey stared at a person eating ice cream.  This made the research people to realize that in human beings also there is group of special neurons that were responsible for imitation and understanding. These neurons take both looking at an action performed by some other person and the same done by our own as identical work. They were named as mirror neurons as they reflect the person to what they look into.  The scientist also states that these neurons are also responsible in grasping the minds of others, which can be called as mind reading.  Mirror neurons when fogs results in the condition know as autism.

In the modern world, the growth of adverse disorders in human is mainly because of obesity.  This literally means overweight.  It is the outcome of excess accumulation of fat in the body.  Fat gets accumulated in the body in the form of adipose tissue.  Obesity may be congenital in origin or due to life style (eating habits) and metabolic disorders.  In some cases, tumors in the food-regulating center are also responsible for obesity.  There are some other cases, in which the exact cause cannot be identifies.  Obesity is one of the major risk factors of diseases like diabetes mellitus, Casablanca Hotels Moroccocardiovascular diseases, hyper blood pressure, lung disorders, and occlusion of blood vessels.  The redundant calories that we take are converted into triglycerides.  This is stored in the adipose cells.  Initially the cell gets enlarged because of the deposition.  When they are fully saturated (reaching maximal size), they start dividing Hotels in Casablanca.  Proliferation of adipocytes occurs in people with extreme obesity.  Treatment for obesity is very crucial.  But it is difficult than any other treatments, because patients involvement is very important Casablanca Hotels.  Modifications in diet, prescription of drugs and regular exercise are some of the solutions to obesity.  Undergoing a surgery is the new method of treatment.

It is one of the fatal genetic disorders. It is a Greek word that means `prematurely old’.  The prefix `pro’ means `before’ and the world `geria’ means `old age’.  This is a syndrome which shows accelerated aging of the child.  This seems to be a very rare disease and has been reported that 1 in 8 million newborn may have the incidence of progeria.  Presently there are 53 known patients with this syndrome all over the world.  These children are born looking similar to that of normal.  But the symptoms sprout out between 10 to 24 months.  The major symptoms are lose of growth, body fat, hair, skin looking aged, stiffness in the joints and hip dislocation.  The sufferer dies at an average age of 13 years due to cardiovascular diseases or stroke.  90% of the cases have a mutated gene that is responsible for coding `lamin A’ protein.  The function of this protein is to hold the nucleus in the cell.  Because of this the nucleus becomes unstable.  Experts believe that the instability of the nucleus is cause for progeria.  Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), is the drug that is usually used for the treatment of cancer.  This has given considerable improvement in the mice associated with progeria syndromes.

Roulleax formation refers to the abnormality in the Red blood corpuscles.  The normal RBC in vertebrate animals appears in disc shape without any conjunction with each other under the microscope.  Any abnormal composition of blood or diseased condition will turn over mostly to the RBCs and affects their appearance, total number, color and bio-chemical composition.   One among such abnormalities is Roulleax, which means piling of RBC one above the other.  As the Red blood cells are discoid shape, their large surface area easily facilitates them in stacking one above the other in abnormal environment.  Some of the major causes for Roulleax formation are inflammation, infection, tissue disorders, and cancerous development.  The factor which directly influence Roulleax formation is, increase in serum protein concentration in the blood.  Because of the formation of long chain RBC, they tend to sediment more easily when blood sample is made to stand for ESR test (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate).  Hence there is increased rate of sedimentation (i.e.) the cells sediments faster.  This test helps in inferring the presence of diseased condition.  The vessels which have smallest diameters are the capillaries.  Flow of blood inside the capillaries is known as Microcirculation because RBCs one after the other very slowly.  In case of a person who is showing Roulleax formation, there is chance occluding the vessel.

The Ultrasound method of imaging is the best scanning technique which doesn’t affect the human tissue.  This is the reason behind their application in the scanning of fetus in the Mother’s womb.  Doppler Effect is the operation principle of Medical Ultrasound Imaging.  The Doppler Effect states that there is change frequency of transmitted signal by the moving object when it is received.  The measure of change of frequency gives the useful information of the moving object.  The received signal consist of properties of object in the form of delay time of echoes from different depths, reflection of ultrasound at different interfaces between the object, the attenuation of the ultrasound and the shift of frequency.  Pulsate form of ultrasound signal is being generated from a piezoelectric device.  The same can also function as a detector.  The transmitted are separated by a time delay due to reflection of different surfaces of the object.  Generally X-rays with lower energy are absorbed by the tissue easily.  In contrast, Ultrasound radiations with higher energy (high frequency) are absorbed readily by the body.  This shows that attenuation increases with increased frequency.  So in order to provide a sufficient penetration power, it is necessary to design a relatively low frequency imaging device.


The word `Shock’ always does not refer to electric shock (passage of electric current into body).  Medically, it means sudden loss of large volume of blood cheap cigarettes online.  This ultimately results in hypotension (decreased blood pressure) and hypoxia (decrease in oxygen supply).  The two types of Shock are primary and secondary.  Usually, a benign vasovagal attack results in sudden reduction of venous return to the heart.  The patient develops unconsciousness, weakness, sinking sensation, pale and clammy limbs, weak and rapid pulse, and low blood pressure.  The primary shock lasts only for few seconds to minutes.  The Secondary shock is also known as True Shock.  Here, shock occurs due to hemodynamic derangements with hypoperfusion of the cells.  The causes for shock are broadly grouped under three headings.  They are Hypovolaemic shock, Septic shock, cardiogenic shock buy discount cigarettes.  Hypovolaemic shock is due to severe hemorrhage as a result of trauma or surgery.  This may also be due to fluid loss in situations like in severe burns, crush injury to a limb, persistent vomiting and severe diarrhea.  Septic Shock is due to infections of bacteria like Gram-negative septicemia (e.g. infection with E.coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and bacteriudes), Gram-positive septicemia (e.g. Infection with streptococci, pneumococci).  Cardiogenic shock is because of sudden circulatory failure.

X-rays are Electromagnetic radiations with photon energy in the range of 10KeV to 100KeV.  This is the first imaging technique identified and still very widely used in scanning the internal of the body.  Radiations of medicinal quality are artificially produced from high energy electrons by colliding with heavy metal target.  The wavelength of the radiation is one of important property that determines the resolution of the image.  The strength of attenuation varies according to the density of the material.  More dense the material greater is the attenuation (absorption of radiation) buy drugs without prescription.  So material like bone absorbs more radiation and reflects a brighter image on the film.  This is the factor that determines the contrast of the image Lexapro(Escitalopram).  In conventional radiographic X-rays images are just the projection of the structures onto the plane and thus depth information is lost.  The next generation of imaging device was Computed tomography (CT scan).  This literally means sliced imaging Evista(Raloxifene).  It consists of an X-ray source and an array of rotating detectors.  The information of the structure is projected and the particular plane of interest in the patient along a line is recorded.  This is continued for a series of small angled rotations and the 2-D image at each slice is obtained.


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